Classifications of Mental Disorders

Mental HealthMental illness is a disorder affecting a person’s feeling, thinking and behavior. Mental illnesses can alter a patient’s ability to relate to others, work or attend school. It can include different forms of personal harm and suffering or abnormality in statistical, social or individual welfare. It may include limitations or disability in what a person can perform – or danger to others or even to the patient themselves.

The mainstream medical community recognizes that there are more than 200 classified types of mental illness. However, there are five broad categories of mental illness. These classes include the following disorders.

1.    Anxiety disorder

2.    Mood disorder

3.    Psychotic and Schizophrenia disorder

4.    Dementia

5.    Eating disorders

1.    Anxiety Disorder

Occasional or periodic anxiety is a normal part of life. You might feel anxious when faced with a problem at work, when making an important decision or before taking a test. However, anxiety may go to the extremes. Anxiety disorder involves more than the typical temporary worry or fear. Anxiety disorders can cause distress and interfere with one’s ability to lead a normal life. Constant and overwhelming fear and worry can be disabling. Different types of anxiety disorders include; panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias and generalized anxiety disorder.

2.    Mood disorder

Mood disorder is a psychological disorder that is characterized by the elevation or lowering of a patient’s mood such as depression or bipolar disorder. They are illnesses that are described by a serious change in mood. These disorders include; depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, over inflated ego, hyperactive or euphoric mania, unrealistic optimism, seasonal affective disorders and sustainable low grade depression. A mood disorder can increase a patient’s risk of heart diseases, diabetes and other disease. Their treatment includes medication and psychotherapy or a combination of both.

3.    Psychotic and Schizophrenia disorder

SchizophreniaSchizophrenia refers to a long-term mental disorder that involves a breakdown in the relationship between thought, behavior and emotion, leading to a distorted perception and inappropriate actions and feelings.  Patients with this disorder may inhibit withdrawal from reality and could turn personal relationships into fantasy and delusion – a sense of mental fragmentation. People with schizophrenia may seem to have lost touch with the reality. This kind of disorder usually starts between age 16 and 30 and is rare in children.

4.    Dementia

Dementia refers to a chronic or persistent disorder of the mental process that is caused by brain disease or injury. It is marked by memory disorder, impaired reasoning and personality changes. In other words, dementia is an overall term used to describe a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory. It can also be over thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person’s ability to perform every day’s tasks.

While symptoms of dementia can overly change, at least two of the following conditions should be easily noticed; memory communication and language, the ability to focus and pay attention, visual perception, reasoning and judgement. People who have dementia have problems with short-term memory, planning, preparing meals, keeping track of a commodity they are carrying among others.

5.    Eating disorders

Eating disorders refer to any range of psychological disorders that are characterized by abnormal or disruptive eating habits. Eating disorders may include inadequate or excessive food intake which can at the long-term affect an individual’s well-being. Most common forms of eating disorders include Bulimia Nervosa, Anorexia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder.

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